Sciatica: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Exercises

Sciatica isn’t actually a condition, but rather a term used to describe sciatic nerve pain symptoms that are caused by compression of the sciatic nerve. For this reason, sciatic nerve pain generally indicates there is an underlying problem in the area that is compressing the nerve.

Common conditions that can develop in the lower back that lead to nerve pain and other sciatica symptoms include:

Fortunately, sciatica typically responds well to non-surgical treatments. If diagnosed and treated early, sciatica symptoms generally go away within a couple of months of treatment.


Sciatica is a condition characterized by pain, numbness, or weakness. Sciatic nerve pain location is in the lower back, hip, and leg.

Some common sciatica causes include:

  • A herniated disk occurs when the soft inner material of a disk bulges out through a tear in the outer layer. This can put pressure on the sciatic nerve and cause sciatica leg pain.
  • Spinal stenosis is a condition in which the spinal canal narrows, putting pressure on the nerves. This can also cause sciatica pain symptoms in the legs.
  • The piriformis muscle is a small muscle located deep in the buttocks. If this muscle becomes tight or spasms, it can compress the sciatic nerve, causing pain.
  • Spondylolisthesis is a condition in which one vertebra slips out of place onto the vertebra below it. This can compress the sciatic nerve and cause pain as well.
  • Other possible sciatic nerve pain causes include degenerative disc disease, spinal tumors, and trauma to the spine, sciatic nerve injury.


The symptoms of sciatica can vary depending on the severity of the compression or irritation of the nerve.

Low back pain is often the first sciatic nerve symptoms and can be described as a dull, aching pain.

Pain can radiate down the back of the leg, often as far as the foot and toes.

People with sciatica may also feel numbness or tingling in the affected leg.

In some cases, sciatica can cause weakness in the affected leg, making it difficult to move or stand on the leg. Sitting or standing for long periods of time can make the pain worse.


The diagnosis of sciatica typically begins with a physical examination and a review of the patient's symptoms and medical history.

During a physical examination, the doctor will typically check for muscle strength, reflexes, and sensation in the affected leg. They may also check for any signs of nerve compression or irritation, such as a loss of sensation in certain areas of the leg or foot.

To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor may also order imaging tests such as X-rays, MRI scans, or CT scans. These tests can help to identify any underlying conditions that may be causing sciatica, such as a herniated disk or spinal stenosis.

Additionally, your doctor may also ask you to perform certain movements or exercises to assess the range of motion and flexibility of your lower back and legs, as well as performing a straight leg raising test to help identify the root of the problem.

It's important to note that sciatica can be caused by a variety of conditions, so the diagnosis and treatment plan will depend on the underlying cause of the problem.


Some common treatment options for sciatica include over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, which can help to relieve the pain associated with sciatica. In some cases, the doctor may prescribe stronger pain medications or muscle relaxants.

Physical therapy can help to improve flexibility and strength in the back and legs, which can help to alleviate the symptoms of sciatica.

Chiropractic care can help to improve the alignment of the spine and relieve any nerve compression or irritation.

Epidural steroid injection into the area around the sciatic nerve can help to reduce inflammation and relieve pain.

In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct the underlying condition that is causing sciatica. For example, if a herniated disk is causing the problem, the doctor may recommend a lumbar discectomy to remove the herniated disk.

It's important to note that treatment options may vary depending on the underlying cause of the problem, and the treatment plan will depend on the individual case.


While most cases of sciatica can be treated with conservative measures such as physical therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes, there are certain risks associated with the condition.

Some risks associated with sciatica include chronic pain, loss of mobility, loss of muscle mass, and nerve damage.

If left untreated, sciatica can lead to chronic pain that can be difficult to manage.

Also, the pain and weakness associated with sciatica can make it difficult to move or stand on the affected leg, which can lead to a loss of mobility. Moreover, prolonged immobility associated with sciatica can lead to a loss of muscle mass in the affected leg.

In some cases, the compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve can lead to permanent sciatic nerve damage.


There are several lifestyle changes to help prevent sciatica. They include maintaining healthy body weight and having a balanced healthy diet rich in vitamin D, Zinc, and Calcium. Also, make sure that you drink enough water.

Quitting smoking and drinking is also a good idea, as nicotine slows down regeneration processes and badly influences your overall health.

Another two tips are incorporating some movement into your life to increase muscle strength and flexibility, and choosing ergonomic furniture. Using proper tables and chairs is extremely important if you have a sedentary lifestyle and need to spend most of your time sitting. In this case, also try to stand up and perform some exercises once in a while to get some movement.

Another good idea is to learn proper techniques for bending and lifting heavy things. For example, lifting heavy things by bending is not a good idea, it can lead to injuries. Instead, you should lift things by squatting. In this case, the pressure is distributed properly.