Spine Surgery Publications

A Series of Endoscopic Lumbar Foraminoplasty Treatment for Radiculopathy in an Obese and Physically Disabled Patient - Case Study
Kai-Xuan Liu, MD, PhD
Endoscopic lumbar foraminoplasty is a minimally invasive spine surgery that can be performed under local anesthesia in outpatient settings. The main purpose of the technique is to relieve the…
Endoscopic Anterior Cervical Discectomy under Epidurogram Guidance
Kai-Xuan Liu, MD, PhD and Bryan Massoud, M.D.
Cervical discectomy is commonly required for spinal cord and nerve compression disorders. Currently, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is the standard procedure for the treatment of cervical…
Endoscopic Transforaminal Thoracic Foraminotomy and Discectomy for the Treatment of Thoracic Disc Herniation
Hong-Fei Nie, MD and Kai-Xuan Liu, MD, PhD
Thoracic disc herniation is a relatively rare yet challenging-to-diagnose condition. Currently there is no universally accepted optimal surgical treatment for symptomatic thoracic disc herniation…
Can the Novel Lumbo-Iliac Triangle Technique Based on Biplane Oblique Fluoroscopy Facilitate Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy for Patients with L5-S1 Disc Herniation Combined with High Iliac Crest? A Case-Control Study of 100 Patients
Jun-Song Yang, MD, Kai-Xuan Liu, MD, Praveen Kadimcherla, MD, Lei Chu, MD, Zhong-Liang Deng, MD, Yun-Kai Chan, MD, Peng Liu, MD, Tuan-Jiang Liu, MD, and Ding-Jun Hao, MD
Since Kambin first introduced the concept of the triangular working zone into percutaneous posterolateral nucleotomy in 1973, percutaneous disc decompression performed with computed tomography (CT…
Techniques and Applications of Endoscopic Spine Surgery. Part I - Overview of Current Techniques
Kai-Xuan Liu, MD, PhD
Chronic pain is a serious health problem. Among chronic pain disorders, spinal pain caused by herniated discs and degenerative spinal diseases constitutes the majority of the problems. The lifetime…
Outcomes of Discectomy by Using Full-Endoscopic Visualization Technique via the Transcorporeal and Transdiscal Approaches in the Treatment of Cervical Intervertebral Disc Herniation - A Comparative Study
Youliang Ren, Junsong Yang, Chien-Min Chen, Kaixuan Liu, Xiang-Fu Wang, Jian-Min Wei, Lei Shi, Wen Liu, Haitao Jiang, Hang Zhou, Shen Li, Zhou Xu, Wanqian Zhang, Zhongliang Deng, and Lei Chu
Currently, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the gold standard for treating cervical intervertebral disc herniation (CIVDH) due to its relatively good safety and efficacy 1–3. However…
Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Procedure for Disc Herniations - A "Between” Technique
Kai-Xuan Liu, MD, PhD and Bryan Massoud, M.D.
Despite the advancement of surgical techniques in endoscopic spine surgeries, treatment of central and paracentral disc herniations, especially disc extrusions and disc sequestrations, remains…
Techniques and Applications of Endoscopic Spine Surgery. Part II - Safety and Effectiveness of Endoscopic Spine Surgery in Treating Spinal Conditions
Kai-Xuan Liu, MD, PhD
Chronic pain is a serious health problem. Treatment of spinal pain generally starts with conservative options. But if conservative treatments fail to produce satisfactory pain relief, surgery may be…
Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Decompression for Isthmic Spondylolisthesis - Technique Description and Clinical Outcome
Kaixuan Liu, MD PHD, Praveen Kadimcherla, MD
Spondylolisthesis is prevalent in the general population. Surgical approaches for symptomatic spondylolisthesis that is refractory to conservative treatment vary. Direct repair of pars fractures and…
A Simple Technique of Accessing the L5-S1 Disc Space for Transforaminal Endoscopic Spine Surgery
Hong-Fei Nie, MD, Jian-Cheng Zeng, MD, PhD, Kai-Xuan Liu, MD., PhD
Transforaminal endoscopic spine surgery is increasingly used to treat a range of spinal conditions. The success of the surgery requires an accurate insertion of the guide needle and a precise…
Surgical Techniques Ensuring Success in Posterior Endoscopic Cervical Foraminotomy and Discectomy at C6-7 in Patients with ProminentShoulders and Short Necks
KAIXUAN LIU, MD, PHD, PRAVEEN KADIMCHERLA, MD
There is a steep learning curve for a successful posterior endoscopic cervical foraminotomy and discectomy (PECFD), an important surgery for cervical foraminal or lateral disc herniation, and cervical…